Leveraging Technology for Energy (Electric Utility) Optimization

Smart EnergyGlobal warming and climate changes, high carbon emissions causing pollution, increasing oil prices are some of the few concerns facing the global economy, countries, administration and the common man. This is driving rapid advances in many alternate solutions like renewable energy, alternative energy, efficient generation, distribution and consumption of energy. Smart Grid is one such initiative which looks at electricity as a source of energy and attempts at efficient generation, distribution and consumption of the same. It also provides for integration of alternate and renewable energy sources as well as allows for distributed generation right up to the end consumer. Smart grid is an electricity system that connects all supply, grid and demand elements through an intelligent communication system. It delivers electricity from suppliers to consumers using digital technology to control appliances at consumers’ homes to save energy, reduce cost and increase reliability and transparency.

Globally all countries have started some initiatives in Smart Grid and have also passed several legislations and incentivized industries and consumers to move in this direction. A recent research report published by Innovation Observatory reveals that utilities worldwide will spend US$378 billion in Smart Grid technologies by 2030.India has massive investment plans and will be at number 3 behindChina and US in Smart Grid technologies investment. The demand in India for these services is expected to reach over to serve 130 million Smart meters by 2021.

Key technology and modernization initiatives taken include the following: These can be leveraged by the utility company to be more competitive and continue to be relevant in the industry for future:

In Generation of Power

  1. Implementation of alternate fuels and sources of generation: Harvesting wind energy in farms, ocean waves in coastal areas, solar energy, switching from coal based turbine to gas based turbines or shale gas in future, where the shale gas (which is entrapped in deep earth crust) could provide the next source of bio-fuels. Recent interests in nuclear fission or nuclear fusion, or ethanol which is plant based fuels are also revived.
  2. Increased alternative storage of energy on low demand to balance the peak generation: In certain countries extra generation is used for pumping water to lakes on the mountain or upstream river in case of hydro-electric generation. New technology enables energy storage in new forms of solid state batteries

In Transmission and Distribution of Power

  1. India’s transmission and distribution losses are among the highest in the world, averaging 26% of total electricity production, with some states as high as 62%. When non-technical losses such as energy theft are included in the total, average losses are as high as 50%.This was one of the key reasons why the distribution segment has been picked up first by the Government. Likewise all countries are facing a certain degree of transmission and distribution losses due to older technology, passive (non controllable, non-monitor able) equipments. Companies are embarking on newer initiatives in building asset management systems, replacing older passive equipments with self managed and controllable newer equipments to reduce the network outage and transmission and distribution losses.
  2. Replacing equipments like transformers with newer equipments which monitor the oil for viscosity, density conductivity etc for better proactive management. Automating the entire distribution network – cables sensors, load factor adjusting active condensers, manageable transformers, even conductivity of cables is controlled to ensure minimum transmission and distribution losses. The network is connected to various generation sources and manages the inputs, distribution and storage of power for maximum efficiency and staggered loads.

In last mile distribution to home or office

  1. Systems and controls to manage a set of homes by dividing the electric load into essential and non essential load and also staggering the same. Example the heating units or cooling units could be fired in a staggered manner to avoid spikes of demand and balance the demand load.
  2. Installing two way meters and encourage households, offices and factories to install solar panels on roof tops, The generated energy is synchronized back to the grid. The household, office or factory units get the net bills and when households are away for vacation and do not use much energy, they might even get a cheque from the utility company for energy supply to the grid.
  3. Creating variable time of day based billing model so households, factory and office units can consume non essential power during off peak hours paying off peak rates.
  4. Educating the consumer by providing consumption analytics- like percentage of bill used for lighting, percentage used for heating/cooling, percentage by different equipments like washing machines etc also benchmarking this and absolute consumption with neighborhood by demographics and advising the consumer for more efficient usage of energy.

Inside a Home, Office or Factory

  1. Manageable energy efficient equipment is installed at homes and utility company might provide an option to the consumer to manage the non essential load like wash load in off peak hours thereby saving the electricity during peak hours of usage.
  2. Remotely managed or time managed devices to program consumption cycle of devices to save energy for example during the day when home is empty the air-conditioning or heating could be tuned down and switched on just in time when the first member of the family returns. Owens and microwaves could be fired just in time to saving repeated heating.
  3. All devices could be managed and optimized by weather patterns in the region during the day.
  4. A smart home could also integrate the controls of lighting, heating security systems and non essential consumption loads to affect only the occupied areas and not having to continuously manually switch on and off and reset devices.

Many of these are in initial trial stages and many have pilots going on in smart cities and it will not be too far in future when all of these will be common place. It is for one of the few times  that the goals of environmentalists, politicians, Industry business and consumers are well aligned.

This entry was posted in Emerging Technologies, Technology Solutions and tagged , , , , , , , . Bookmark the permalink.

113 Responses to Leveraging Technology for Energy (Electric Utility) Optimization

  1. electronic cigarette says:

    It’s really a great and helpful piece of information. I’m satisfied that you just shared this useful
    information with us. Please stay us up to date like this.

    Thanks for sharing.

  2. Unidentified says:

    Hi there it’s me, I am also visiting this web site on a regular basis, this site is in fact pleasant and the people are really sharing good thoughts.

  3. Unidentified says:

    I wanted to thank you for this wonderful read!! I certainly loved every bit of
    it. I have you bookmarked to check out new things you post…

  4. Unidentified says:

    Fantastic website you have here but I was curious about if
    you knew of any community forums that cover the same topics discussed in this article?
    I’d really love to be a part of online community where I can get comments from other experienced people that share the same interest. If you have any recommendations, please let me know. Cheers!

  5. Unidentified says:

    A person necessarily assist to make severely articles I
    might state. That is the first time I frequented your website page and thus far?
    I amazed with the analysis you made to make this actual put up incredible.
    Wonderful job!

  6. self defense says:

    Have you ever considered about including a little
    bit more than just your articles? I mean, what you say is valuable and everything.
    But think of if you added some great photos or video
    clips to give your posts more, “pop”! Your content is excellent but with pics and clips, this blog could definitely be one of the greatest in its niche.
    Excellent blog!

  7. Hiya! Where did you get design of your blog? It’s amazing 😀

  8. Pay for Performance SEO says:

    Pay for Performance SEO I prefer to read this kind of stuff. The quality of content is fine and the conclusion is good. Thanks for the post.

  9. Pingback: Micro Niche

  10. Marla says:

    I just added this feed to my bookmarks. I have to say, I really enjoy reading your blogs. Keep it up!

  11. Unidentified says:

    I like this web site very much so much fantastic info . “You can’t turn back the clock. But you can wind it up again.” by Bonnie Prudden.

  12. Unidentified says:

    Nice piece of info! May I reference part of this on my blog if I post a backlink to this webpage? Thank you.

  13. Jame Iacuzio says:

    I just wanted to thank you one more time for your amazing web-site you have created here. Its full of ideas for those who are truly interested in this kind of subject, primarily this very post. You really are all really sweet as well as thoughtful of others in addition to the fact that reading your website posts is a superb delight if you ask me. And exactly what a generous gift! Mary and I will have excitement making use of your recommendations in what we need to do in a few days. Our listing is a kilometer long so your tips are going to be put to fine use.

  14. Please let me know if you’re looking for a author for your weblog. You have some really great articles and I think I would be a good asset. If you ever want to take some of the load off, I’d love to write some material for your blog in exchange for a link back to mine. Please blast me an email if interested. Thank you!

  15. Greetings from Carolina! I’m bored to tears at work so I decided to browse your blog on my iphone during lunch break. I love the info you provide here and can’t wait to take a look when I get home. I’m amazed at how quick your blog loaded on my phone .. I’m not even using WIFI, just 3G .. Anyhow, very good site!

  16. Andrew Lim says:

    Thank you for the sensible critique. Me and my neighbor were just preparing to do some research on this. We got a grab a book from our local library but I think I learned more clear from this post. I am very glad to see such magnificent info being shared freely out there.

  17. adam says:

    Regards for all your efforts that you have put in this. very interesting info . “I am the wisest man alive, for I know one thing, and that is that I know nothing. (Plato’s Apology)” by Socrates.

  18. inance says:

    very beneficial material, all round I picture this is worthy of a bookmark, thanks

  19. Thank you, I have recently been looking for info about this subject for a while and yours is the greatest I’ve found out till now. But, what in regards to the bottom line? Are you certain in regards to the supply?

  20. friv says:

    Real nice style and wonderful written content , very little else we require : D.

  21. I wanted to follow up and let you know how really I loved discovering your website today. I’d personally consider it a real honor to do things at my workplace and be able to make use of the tips discussed on your web-site and also participate in visitors’ comments like this. Should a position connected with guest writer become available at your end, make sure you let me know.

  22. Hi! This is my 1st comment here so I just wanted to give a quick shout out and say I genuinely enjoy reading your blog posts. Can you suggest any other blogs/websites/forums that deal with the same subjects? Appreciate it!

  23. Unidentified says:

    I think this internet site has very great pent written content articles.

  24. Arcelia Bisel says:

    I blog often and I genuinely thank you for your information. Your article has truly peaked my interest. I’m going to take a note of your blog and keep checking for new details about once a week. I opted in for your RSS feed as well.

  25. Unidentified says:

    Very interesting topic, thanks for putting up.

  26. Hiya, I’m really glad I’ve found this info. Nowadays bloggers publish just about gossips and web and this is really frustrating. A good site with exciting content, that is what I need. Thank you for keeping this website, I’ll be visiting it. Do you do newsletters? Can not find it.

  27. Unidentified says:

    I conceive this internet site has got very good composed written content posts.

  28. Unidentified says:

    How do you make your blog look this good! Email me if you can and share your wisdom. !

  29. Unidentified says:

    Discovered your article quite interesting in fact. I truly appreciated studying it and you simply make rather some superior factors. I will bookmark this internet site for that foreseeable future! Relly great post.

  30. seo says:

    My spouse and I absolutely love your blog and find the majority of your post’s to be just what I’m looking for. Does one offer guest writers to write content to suit your needs? I wouldn’t mind publishing a post or elaborating on a lot of the subjects you write concerning here. Again, awesome weblog!

  31. athens says:

    Normally I do not learn post on blogs, but I wish to say that this write-up very compelled me to take a look at and do so! Your writing style has been surprised me. Thanks, very great article.

  32. You are a very smart person!

  33. hiphop says:

    Thank you for your site post. Jones and I have already been saving to get a new ebook on this theme and your short article has made all of us to save our own money. Your opinions really responded to all our problems. In fact, above what we had acknowledged prior to when we came across your wonderful blog. My partner and i no longer have doubts along with a troubled mind because you have completely attended to all of our needs here. Thanks

  34. You really make it appear really easy together with your presentation but I find this matter to be really one thing which I think I would never understand. It kind of feels too complex and extremely large for me. I’m having a look forward to your next put up, I will try to get the grasp of it!

  35. Have you given any kind of consideration at all with converting your current webpage into Chinese? I know a small number of translaters right here which would certainly help you do it for no cost if you wanna get in touch with me personally.

  36. Unidentified says:

    I’ll right away grasp your rss as I can’t to find your e-mail subscription link or e-newsletter service. Do you’ve any? Please let me recognize so that I may just subscribe. Thanks.

  37. Hyo Pricer says:

    I have seen great websites and I have seen not so great sites. This web page is very informationrmative in many ways and certainloy ranks in the former category. Really appreciate the info your providing use avid readers!

  38. timbangan says:

    Someone essentially help to make significantly articles I might state. That is the very first time I frequented your website page and up to now? I amazed with the research you made to create this particular submit extraordinary. Great task!

  39. flower says:

    You have mentioned very interesting details! ps nice internet site.

  40. ambassador says:

    Real nice style and excellent subject matter, absolutely nothing else we want :D.

  41. ambassador says:

    Thanks for this howling post, I am glad I found this internet site on yahoo.

  42. Stron says:

    I believe other website owners should take this internet site as an model, very clean and good user genial layout.

  43. Unidentified says:

    Great blog you have here but I was wanting to know if you knew of any user discussion forums that cover the same topics discussed in this article? I’d really like to be a part of online community where I can get comments from other knowledgeable people that share the same interest. If you have any suggestions, please let me know. Many thanks!

  44. Unidentified says:

    I genuinely enjoy studying on this website , it has got fantastic posts .

  45. roses says:

    I see something genuinely interesting about your weblog so I bookmarked .

  46. mays says:

    I truly appreciate this post. I’ve been looking all over for this! Thank goodness I found it on Bing. You’ve made my day! Thx again!

  47. Great post. I just stumbled upon your blog and wanted to say that I have really enjoyed browsing your blog posts. In any case I’ll be subscribing to your feed and I hope you write again soon!

  48. cupcake says:

    I have been exploring for a bit for any high quality articles or weblog posts in this kind of house . Exploring in Yahoo I eventually stumbled upon this web site. Studying this information So i am glad to express that I have an incredibly excellent uncanny feeling I came upon just what I needed. I such a lot undoubtedly will make certain to do not forget this website and give it a look regularly.

  49. Kathaleen Hollack says:

    Somebody necessarily assist to make severely articles I’d state. This is the first time I frequented your web page and to this point? I surprised with the analysis you made to create this particular put up amazing. Excellent activity!

  50. Zeek Rewards says:

    Howdy! I could have sworn I’ve been to this blog before but after checking through some of the post I realized it’s new to me. Anyways, I’m definitely happy I found it and I’ll be book-marking and checking back often!

  51. posers says:

    Woh I love your blog posts, saved to favorites ! .

  52. Whats Going down i’m new to this, I stumbled upon this I have discovered It positively helpful and it has helped me out loads. I hope to give a contribution & assist other users like its helped me. Great job.

  53. fixe says:

    Great post, I believe blog owners should learn a lot from this web site its very user genial. So much superb info on here :D.

  54. Gabriel Hernander says:

    I was so lucky. I found the best website for my Afterward a lot investigating, I really found the best

  55. Thank you so much pertaining to giving us an update on this theme on your website. Please realize that if a brand-new post becomes available or in case any modifications occur about the current posting, I would be interested in reading more and knowing how to make good use of those approaches you write about. Thanks for your time and consideration of other folks by making your blog available.

  56. apartamenty zakopane says:

    Subscribed to your blog, thanks

  57. Ogrodzenia says:

    Truly worthwhile article. Spend focus

  58. mylar says:

    Hi there, You have done an incredible job. I’ll certainly digg it and personally recommend to my friends. I am confident they will be benefited from this site.

  59. Unidentified says:

    Thanks for the writeup. I definitely agree with what you are saying. I have been talking about this subject a lot lately with my father so hopefully this will get him to see my point of view. Fingers crossed!

  60. safeon says:

    A cool blog post there mate . Cheers for that .

  61. I conceive other website owners should take this website as an model, very clean and good user friendly pattern . “One of the first duties of the physician is to educate the masses not to take medicine.” by William Osler.

  62. Mua Gi says:

    Excellent goods from you, man. I’ve understand your stuff previous to and you are just extremely excellent. I really like what you have acquired here, really like what you’re stating and the way in which you say it. You make it enjoyable and you still take care of to keep it sensible. I can’t wait to read much more from you. This is actually a tremendous site.

  63. Unidentified says:

    Nice information, many thanks to the author. It is incomprehensible to me now, but in general, the usefulness and significance is overwhelming. Thanks again and good luck!

  64. Properly well properly consider what you have right here. It resembles another outstanding blogging site that a great deal of individuals become commenting on. Thank you a lot for the intelligent information as well as knowledge, I signed upped to the provide feedbacks in case another would like to come over and also obtain a contention on this material

  65. Howdy! I just would like to give you a big thumbs up for the great information you have right here on this post. I’ll be returning to your web site for more soon.

  66. Unidentified says:

    Discovered your post really intriguing certainly. I truly experienced browsing it therefore you make really some good points. I’ll bookmark this site for the foreseeable future! Relly good post.

  67. Madeleine says:

    Bookmarked your stuff,Not exactly clear on where you’re coming from – but a good read none-the-less!

  68. lovely says:

    I absolutely love your blog and find almost all of your post’s to be exactly I’m looking for. can you offer guest writers to write content available for you? I wouldn’t mind composing a post or elaborating on a lot of the subjects you write regarding here. Again, awesome weblog!

  69. gridsim says:

    extremely good put up, i undoubtedly adore this web website, keep on it

  70. frenchfriesptr says:

    I truly appreciate your piece of work, Great post.

  71. embroid says:

    Great blog you have here. Many blogs like yours cover subjects that just aren’t covered by magazines. I don’t know how we got on 12 years ago with just print media.

  72. Unidentified says:

    Hello very nice blog!! Guy .. Beautiful .. Incredible .. I’ll save your blog and take the rss feeds alsoÖ Awsome website! Iím caring this!! Is going to be back again later on to see more. I’m getting your feeds additionally Simply saying many thanks will not just be adequate, for the tremendous lucidity inside your writing. I’ll right away grab your own rss feed to remain abreast of any kind of updates.

  73. Buck Sauveur says:

    I simply want to say I am just new to blogging and site-building and actually liked this web page. Very likely I’m planning to bookmark your blog . You amazingly have remarkable stories. Thanks a lot for sharing with us your web site.

  74. Julio Kinner says:

    My spouse and I stumbled over here by a different web page and thought I might as well check things out. I like what I see so now i’m following you. Look forward to going over your web page again.

  75. soul healing says:

    Have you ever thought about publishing an ebook or guest authoring on other sites? I have a blog based on the same information you discuss and would really like to have you share some stories/information. I know my subscribers would value your work. If you’re even remotely interested, feel free to shoot me an email.

  76. Carl says:

    Excellent goods from you, man. I have understand your stuff previous to and you are just extremely fantastic. I really like what you have acquired here, certainly like what you’re saying and the way in which you say it. You make it enjoyable and you still care for to keep it sensible. I can not wait to read much more from you. This is really a terrific web site.

  77. Erwin Storey says:

    We simply couldnt depart your website before stating that I truly enjoyed the quality info a person provide to your visitors? Is going to be back quickly in order to check up on new postsll

  78. Allan Stoneham says:

    I’m truly enjoying the design and layout of your blog. It’s a very easy on the eyes which makes it much more enjoyable for me to come here and visit more often. Did you hire out a developer to create your theme? Exceptional work!

  79. Pattie Delafuente says:

    Wonderful site. A lot of useful information here. I am sending it to some pals ans additionally sharing in delicious. And of course, thank you on your sweat!

  80. Jobs in Nigeria says:

    I do enjoy the manner in which you have presented this difficulty and it does give us some fodder for thought. However, from everything that I have observed, I simply wish when the actual feedback stack on that people today continue to be on point and not embark on a soap box of some other news du jour. Anyway, thank you for this superb point and whilst I do not really agree with the idea in totality, I value your perspective.

  81. callaway lr550 rangefinder says:

    Have you ever thought about creating an e-book or guest authoring on other sites? I have a blog centered on the same ideas you discuss and would really like to have you share some stories/information. I know my visitors would value your work. If you’re even remotely interested, feel free to send me an e-mail.

  82. bushnell says:

    Have you ever thought about including a little bit more than just your articles? I mean, what you say is valuable and all. But think of if you added some great visuals or videos to give your posts more, “pop”! Your content is excellent but with images and clips, this website could definitely be one of the greatest in its niche. Very good blog!

  83. fruit mocking party says:

    Superb site you have here but I was wondering if you knew of any discussion boards that cover the same topics discussed here? I’d really love to be a part of community where I can get comments from other knowledgeable people that share the same interest. If you have any suggestions, please let me know. Thanks a lot!

  84. Leapin says:

    Hey! Would you mind if I share your blog with my facebook group? There’s a lot of folks that I think would really appreciate your content. Please let me know. Many thanks

  85. erma surette says:

    Greetings from Carolina! I’m bored to death at work so I decided to browse your website on my iphone during lunch break. I enjoy the knowledge you present here and can’t wait to take a look when I get home. I’m surprised at how quick your blog loaded on my cell phone .. I’m not even using WIFI, just 3G .. Anyhow, good site!

  86. burberry says:

    That is actually awesome notion dude.iam actually proud of you .

  87. Eveline Melson says:

    I’m impressed, I must say. Really rarely do I encounter a weblog that’s each educative and entertaining, and let me tell you, you’ve got hit the nail on the head. Your concept is excellent; the issue is something that not enough people are talking intelligently about. I’m very comfortable that I stumbled throughout this in my seek for something referring to this.

  88. smart business advisory and consulting says:

    Hey! I just wanted to ask if you ever have any trouble with hackers? My last blog (wordpress) was hacked and I ended up losing several weeks of hard work due to no back up. Do you have any solutions to stop hackers?

  89. pinterest says:

    Howdy! I know this is kinda off topic but I was wondering if you knew where I could get a captcha plugin for my comment form? I’m using the same blog platform as yours and I’m having trouble finding one? Thanks a lot!

  90. Unidentified says:

    I have been checking out some of your articles and i can state pretty good stuff. I will definitely bookmark your site.

  91. Leapin’ Leprechaun Lite says:

    Howdy just wanted to give you a quick heads up. The words in your post seem to be running off the screen in Ie. I’m not sure if this is a format issue or something to do with internet browser compatibility but I figured I’d post to let you know. The layout look great though! Hope you get the problem solved soon. Kudos

  92. Amira Runnels says:

    Thanks a lot for enjoying this beauty article with me. I am enjoy it very much! Looking forward to another great article. Good luck to the author! all the best!

  93. fruit mocking party says:

    Hello, i read your blog occasionally and i own a similar one and i was just curious if you get a lot of spam comments? If so how do you protect against it, any plugin or anything you can recommend? I get so much lately it’s driving me crazy so any help is very much appreciated.

  94. I love your website. Very useful, very clever post. If you want check out my website

  95. Javier Favor says:

    Everyone loves what you guys are usually up too. This sort of clever work and coverage! Keep up the fantastic works guys I’ve incorporated you guys to blogroll.

  96. invicta 6716 says:

    Engrossing blog – kudos. This was a truly intriguing blog. I will drop by again in future.

  97. slotomania says:

    You’re in reality a just right webmaster. The site loading speed is incredible. It sort of feels that you are doing any distinctive trick. Also, The contents are masterpiece. you’ve performed a great task on this subject!

  98. Unidentified says:

    It is perfect time to make a few plans for the longer term and it’s time to be happy. I’ve read this post and if I may I want to suggest you some fascinating things or suggestions. Maybe you could write subsequent articles regarding this article. I wish to learn more things approximately it!

  99. Angela Quesinberry says:

    There is apparently a bunch to identify about this. I believe you made various good points in features also.

  100. Rebuild Credit says:

    Great article! I loved the knowledge as well as the advice given . Plus, your article writing style is very pleasing to read. If you have time please browse my brand new webpage and tell me what you think.

  101. Youre so cool! I dont suppose I’ve read anything like this before. So nice to find somebody with some original thoughts on this subject. Really thank you for starting this up. This website is something that is needed on the web, someone with a little originality. Useful job for bringing something new to the internet!

  102. SEM guide says:

    An appealing discussion is worth comment. I believe that you should write more about this subject, it might not be a taboo subject but usually people are not enough to speak on such topics. To the next. Cheers

  103. polos says:

    I simply required some good info and was looking on search engines like google for this. We frequented every site that arrived upon very first site and did not got any kind of related outcome i quickly considered to look at out the 2nd 1 and also got your site. this really is things i desired!

  104. Unidentified says:

    Hello there, just was alert to your blog through Google, and located that it’s really informative. I am going to be careful for brussels. I’ll be grateful if you happen to proceed this in future. Lots of people might be benefited out of your writing. Cheers!

  105. Alvani says:

    wow, nice article…keep share

  106. energia magnetyczna says:

    Helpful information. Fortunate me I found your website accidentally, and I am shocked why this accident did not took place in advance! I bookmarked it.

  107. Cariana says:

    i visited your post. this is really interesting to read on this. thanks for sharing this post. i appreciate your thought.http://www.cinemacuritiba.com

  108. Duda says:

    nice article. i am a huge fan of your work and i’m always coming here to see what’s new. thanks.http://www.letraemusica.net

  109. Many thanks for an incredible put up, would examine your particular others posts. many thanks for your ideas within this, I experienced a trifle struck by this short article. Thanks again again! You wanna make a great time. Portrays natures best by the great info here. I do think if a greater number of people considered it doing this, they’d have a very better time period get the hang ofing the difficulty.

  110. Arup Vithal says:

    Hi Rajiv
    Over and above what you have mentioned in your article what i think is needed is change in outlook of an individual to save all forms of energy.
    Simple and effective campaigns being run by Govt of India to save fuel on a traffic light signal, save power of homes, do car pool to save fuel are basic steps to educate individuals.
    If adopted in localized manner across developed nations, they have the potential to save lot of resources for future in currently nuclear powered energy nations
    Regards
    Arup

  111. whm reseller says:

    I am impressed with this web site , rattling I am a fan . whm reseller | whm reseller |

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *